Ventricular septal defects occur when during fetal development, the muscular walls separating the heart into left and right sides fail to form completely between the lower chambers (ventricles). It changes the normal flow of blood into the heart causing serious heart problems. It is a congenital anomaly, i.e., the child is born with it.


A child having mild VSD does not have any symptoms.

  • Irregular heartbeat.
  • Wheezing.
  • Not growing as normal.
  • Troubled eating.
  • Fussy.
  • Pale looking skin.

Diagnostic Tests


  • An echocardiogram or 2D echo produces sound waves to create images inside the heart.
  • An electrocardiogram or ECG checks the electrical activity of the heart.
  • Chest x-ray.


Small VSD does not need any treatment and closes by itself.

Treatment for medium and large VSD includes:

  • Medications for the heart.
  • Proper nutrition to the child.
  • Transcatheter closure is a non-invasive procedure that helps in closing the heart defect. In this procedure, a small thin tube is placed into the blood vessel of the arm and leg, and then this tube is proceeded towards the heart and then is used to place a small device over the defect.
  • Surgery to patch the hole.